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Germany to Australia
Zebra 1838

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Zebra 1838

zebrapicture.jpg

The 'Zebra' was a 3 mast ship rig. Built 1818. Owner J. Dede of Altona. She rated at about 400 tons. The captain was Dirk Meinerts Hahn. With a crew of 16 men and 198 passengers on board she departed on Sunday August 12th, 1838, from Altona, near Hamburg: Tuesday August 21st out of the Elbe into the open sea. On Friday December 28th, 1838 the 'Zebra' arrived at Holdfast Bay (Glenelg), South Australia: Wednesday January 2nd, 1839 at Port Adelaide, South Australia.

PASSENGER LIST FOR THE ZEBRA

1. BARTEL: Christian, thresher-gardener (44), wife Maria Elisabeth, nee Kirschke (41), children Johanne Luise (21), Anna Maria (16), Dorothea Elisabeth (12), Karoline (6), from Möstchen. (see note 1.)

2. BARTEL: Gottlob, cottager (41), wife Elisabeth, nee Binder (40), children Johann Wilhelm (19), Maria Elisabeth (14), Johann Gottfried (8), Johann Gottlob (4), Johann Christian (9 months), from Möstchen.

3. BARTSCH: Samuel, joiner (37), wife Eleonore, nee Meissner (38), children Johann Gottlieb (10), Johann Friedrich (7), Johann Christian (5), Johann August (3), Johanne Eleonore (2), Johann Samuel (3 months), from Skampe.

4. BEHREND: Gottfried, shoemaker (35), wife Beate, nee Lichtensteiner (35), Child Auguste Emilie (11), from Schwiebus.

5. BOEHM: Johann Georg, cottager and journeyman, carpenter (42), wife Johanne Karoline, nee König (37), children Luise (15), Eleonore (11), Johann Ernst (8), Karoline (6), Dorothea (3), Traugott Wilhelm (1), from Muschten. (see note 2.)

6. BRETTIG: Samuel (42), wife Johanne Luise (44), children Hermine Florentine (10), Hermann Reinhold (3), one other.

7. DOHNT: Johann Gottfried, small cottager (43), wife Anna Dorothea, nee Newmann (40), children Anna Dorothea (20), Johann Gottlieb (18), Johanne Luise (16), Johann Gottfried (13), Johann Christian (10), Johann Georg (8), Maria Elisabeth (3), from Guhren. (see note 3.)

8. HELBIG: Friedrich, colonist (35), wife Eleonore, nee Koch (37), son Johann Wilhelm (7), from Friedrichsfelde. Friedrich died on voyage, Sept 22, 1838.

9. JAENSCH: Christian, farmer (40< wife Maria Elisabeth, nee Klenke (3), children Johann Dorothea (15), Johann Gottlob (13), Johann Christian (9), Johann Friedrich Traugott (6), Maria Elisabeth (5), Johanne Luise (2), from Kay.

10. JAENSCH: Maria, (44). Sister to Christian Jaensch, above, from Kay.

11. JANETZK: Johann George, cottager and journeyman mason (32), wife Luise, nee Lude (28), children Johann Gotthilf (3), Johanne Luise (1½), from Muschten.

12. KIRSCH: Friederike, widow (56). Mother-in-law of J.C. Schirmer, below, from Nichern.

13. KLENKE: Christian, day-labourer (51), wife Anna Elisabeth, nee Gierke (49), daughter Johanne Dorothea (21), from Kay. Christian died on voyage.

14. KLUGE: Eleonore, widow, day-labourer, children Christian (19), and a
daughter (15), from Nickern.

15. LIEBELT: Johann Christian, shepherd (38), wife Maria Elisabeth, nee Kuchel (40), children Johann Gottlieb (14), Johann Christoph (12), Johanne Eleonore (5), from Nickern.

16. LIEBELT: Johann Christoph, tailor (33), wife Anna Dorothea, neeWolf (30), children Johann Friedrich August (7), Johanne Luise (4), Johann Gottfried (1), from Nickern.

17. LUBASCH: Gottfried, cottager (49), second wife Anna Dorothea nee, Greiser (41), daughter from first marriage Johanne Eleonore Henriette (16), children from second marriage Anna Dorothea Luise (13), Johanne Karoline (11), Anna Dorothea (5), Maria Elisabeth (3), Anna Elisabeth (6 mths), from Rissen. The first daughter from the first marriage, Johanne Luise, came out from Germany in 1855 with her husband and family.

18. NEUMANN: Gottfried, cottager (42), wife Anna Maria nee Pfeiffer (44), children Luise (12), August (10), Wilhelm (7), Maria Elisabeth (3), from Kay.

19. NITSCHKE: Friedrich Wilhelm journeyman mason (35), wife Maria Elisabeth nee Süss (35), children Johann Karl (10), Johann Wilhelm (8), Johanne Karoline (6), from Kay. Wife was daughter of J.F. Süss, below.

20. NITSCHKE: Gottfried, cottager (58), wife Johanne Dorothea, nee Wolff (58), from Kay.

21. NITSCHKE: Johann Gottlob, wheelwright (30), wife Anna Dorothea, nee Hirthe (34), children Friedrich Wilhelm (6), Maria Elisabeth (3), Anna Dorothea, (5mths), from Kay.

22. PAECH: Friedrich, cottager and joiner (32), wife Johanne Luise, nee Jachning (36), children Johanne Karoline (7), Johanne Eleonore (5), Johanne Luise (2), from Nickern.

23. PAECH: Johann Georg, farmer (45), second wife Anna Rosina nee Richter (27), children from first marriage (wife nee Klenke) Johann Christian (18), Johann Gottlob (15), Johann Georg (12), Johanne Luise (8), from second marriage Maria
Elisabeth (4), Johann Friedrich (2), from Kay. The eldest son of the first marriage, Johann Gottfried, came out in 1841, having had military service difficulties.

24. PAECH: Johann Friedrich, occupant, formerly farmer (36), wife Anna Dorothea, nee Kramm (33), children Johann Friedrich Wilhelm (11), Johann August (9), Johanne Dorothea (5), Johann Gottlieb (3), Johann Friedrich (6 mths), from Rentschen.

25. PFEIFFER: Johann Georg, thresher-gardener (47), wife Anna Rosina, nee Neumann (47), children Johann Gottlieb (19), Johann Gottfried (17), Anna Elisabeth (12), Johann Georg (8), Anna Luise (6), Johann Christian (3), from Kay.

26. PFEIFFER: Johann Georg, thresher-gardener (59), wife Christiane, nee Schliefke (56), children Johanne Eleonore (30), Johann Christian (26), Maria Elisabeth (18), Johann Gottlob (16), Johann Wilhelm (12), from Rackau.

27. RILLRIGHT: Goffried, colonist (44), wife Anna Dorothea, nee Woith, children Johann Gottlob (20), Dorothea Elisabeth (17), from Friedrichsfelde.

28. SCHIRMER: Johann Christian, thresher-gardener (33), wife Anna Dorothea, nee Kirsch (34), child Gottlob (4), from Nickern. Wife was daughter of Friederike Kirsch, above.

29. SCHIRMER: Friedrich Gottlot, widower (56), children Johann George (16), Eleonore (11), from Nickern.

30. SCHUBERT: Christian Schubert, day-labourer (51), wife Elisabeth, nee Bartel (48), son Johann Christian (16), from Möstchen.

31. SCHULZ: Johann Christoph Schulz, colonist (47), wife Johanne Dorothea, nee Frank (49), children Johann Christian (28), Karl august (20), Johanne Luise (7), from Klippendorf.

32. SCHULZ: Dorothea Elisabeth, nee Paech (42), widow, children Johanne Eleonore (12), Johann Gotthilf (8), from Rentschen. Sister to Johann Friedrich Paech, above.

33. SCHMIDT: Gottlob, day-labourer (50), wife Anna Dorothea, nee Kluge (50), children Anna Dorothea (20), Dorothea Elisabeth (17), Gottfried (16), Johann Gottlob (13), Anna Elizabeth Rosina (10), from Skampe. Gottlob died early. Wife settled at Hahndorf. (See note 4.)

34. STEIKE: Samuel, day-labourer (40), wife Johanne Dorothea, nee Paech (36), children Johann Gottlieb (15), Johanne Eleonore (13), Maria Elisabeth (5), Johanne Luise (2), from Kay, Brandenburg. Settled at Hahndorf, later Lobethal.

35. SÜSS: Johann Friedrich, cottager (67), wife Christiane, nee Thiele (67), daughter Eleonore (43), from Kay. Father-in-law of F.W. Nitschke, above.

36. WITTWER: Johann Friedrich Wilhelm, miller (38), wife Johanne Leonore Henriette, nee Gerlach (34), children Friedrich Wilhelm (9), Johanne Karoline (6 mths), from Guhren.

37. ZIMMERMANN: Johann Friedrich, free-hold gardener (38), wife Anna Elisabeth, nee Zimmermann (39), children Johanne Luise (11), Johanne Eleonore (8), Maria Elisabeth (2), from Jehser.

Cabin Passenger: Hermann Friedrich Kook, agriculturalist/surveyor, from Lübeck.

Ship's Surgeon: Dr Matheison, from Schleswig.

*Inclusion of the following names is more doubtful:

BOTHE: Christian Bothe, merchant (59), wife Anna maria nee Körber (54), daugher Luise (21), from Krummendorf.
(Not included by eith Brauer or Wittwer. However, two Christian Bothe families are reported to have left Prussia in 1838, and there are two Christian Bothe signatures on the Oath of Allegiance list of May 24, 1839. One of the families came out on the Price George; possibly the other came on the Zebra.)

FIEDLER: Julius
(Probably came on Zebra or Catharina, rather than on the Prince George.)

FLIEGERT: (In the past there was dispute over whether Gottlieb Friegert and family came on the Zebra or the Catharina. However, an extant travel pass for gottlieb Fliegert stamped by the Hamburg police, 14 Sept 19\838, indictes that the family emigrated on the Catharina.)

JAESCHKE: Some of the children of johann Georg Jaeschke may have come out on the Zebra.

KLUG: Johann Gottfied (16)
(Not included by either Brauer or Wittwer, but definiely one of the early settler of Hahndorf.)

NITSCHKE: Samuel, small cottager (48), wife Anna Elisabeth, nee Grieger (42), children Johann Gottlieb (18), Gottfried (14), Johanne Eleonore (12), Johann (6), Johann Traugott (2), Johanne Luise (1 mth), from Lochow.
(Not inclued by either Brauer or Wittwer, but listed as having left Prussia in 1838. His name is on the Oath of Allegiance list and in Allen's 1844 Almanack.)

SCHIRMER: Gottlob, servant (28), from Guhren.
(Not inclued by either Brauer or Wittwer, but listed as having left Prussia in 1838, and in various early SA data.)

THE VOYAGE

(Extracts from the reminiscences from the captain Dirk Meinerts Hahn)

July 29. The emigrants came on board, 199 in number. Whilst the ship was still tied up at its berth, two children died and received a pauper's burial in the Altona cemetery.

August 12. On a Sunday morning at 6 o'clock a steam-launch drew us out of the city.

August 17. Already one child died. We buried it on Jull Sand.

August 19. We came down to Krautsand. On the same day a second child die.

August 21. We sailed out of the Elbe into the sea. On board there were altogether 106 adults, 30 children, ten years of age and over, 31 children, over six years, 26 children over 1/4 of a year, 4 infants, 2 cabin passengers and 16 men = 215 souls. Their provisions for the period consisted of 26,674 gallons of water, 24,400 pounds of bread, 27 barrels of port, 27 barrels of beef, 10 casks of herrings, 38 barrels of flour, 60 casks of dried peas, 7 bags of coffee beans, 5 barrels of sugar, 50 cheeses, 17 quarters of butter, 29 bags of rice, 5 barrels beans, 2 barrels plus, 2 barrels pearl barley, 7 hogsheads of vinegar, 10 bags of salt, 8 hogsheads sauerkraut, 1 hogshead wine, 50 bottles cognac, 105 bottles port wine, 25 bottles bitter brandy, 50 pounds tea, 50 pounds arrowroot, one small barrel lamp-oil.

August 24. We entered the English Channel.

September 16. We saw the Canary Islands, particularly Palma, which we passed about fifteen miles to the west.

With 26 sick people we had left the Elbe; then seasickness put the rest to bed, two aged men excepted. Deaths became more frequent and on September 24th the eighth corpse was buried at sea. Several began to suffer from scurvy.

October 10. We crossed the Equator at 24°10' longitude west...

September 24. I have a large number of sick. Of these, two adults had died by October 10th, the rest had almost completely recovered. A rash, which looked very much like chicken-pox, spread among the children. After this rash had passed right through all the children, they enjoyed the best of health. One boy fell down between the companion way on to a woman, who was 5½ months pregnant. During the following night this woman was delivered of a small female child, which however died half an hour after birth. These who suffered from scurvy were given plenty of sauerkraut and raw potatoes and were kept on the move, and they all recovered.

November 15 - 16. We passed the Cape of Good Hope at a distance of 5°.

I could not sufficiently admire the steadfastness with which these people had remained true to their faith after eight years of daily persecutions, true also to their meeting together after their preachers had been banished, even if detection meant a penalty of heavy fines. Yet at such meetings nothing more had been done by them than someone stood up as moved in his spirit and addressed the others present, just as was done on board ship. There was certainly no departure from Lutheran doctrine. These people were falsely decried in Hamburg as heretics and bigots. They travelled many miles to receive the Lord's Supper in the forests from their pastors, who wandered about as fugitives. Fathers had to baptize their own children because of the lack of pastors.

December 3 - At 5 in the morning we sighted the island of St Paul

We lost another aged woman through death. There was something remarkable about her dying. Her sickness was started by disharmony in her family, which had been caused by her son-in-law (so she told me). After she had been bed-ridden for three days, she called all her relatives to her bedside on the evening of December 22nd said farewell to them, asked for forgiveness from all present in case there was anyone aboard whom she had offended, folder her hands and began to pray: 'Now do I go to Jesus Christ, my arms reach out to meet him, etc". These were her last words. After her death her body took on a yellow colour. As soon as we had buried her corpse at sea the following day, the wind again turned in our favour and on December 27th we got in sight of Kangaroo Island with loud cheering of the passengers... On New Year's Day, 1938, we successfully crossed the bar and on January 2nd anchored in the port.

On the Zebra we hoisted the first foreign flag flown on the shores of this new colony, which attracted the pleased attention of many educated English colonists. Consequently, on the day after our arrival, a whole company of distinguished persons came on board, welcomed us very kindly, and asked for permission to go between decks in order to see our passengers and our arrangements, which I showed them with pleasure.

True, indeed, 11 persons, 6 adults and 6 children, had died on the voyage, just as had been mentioned in the foregoing account. The rest, 187 souls in all, were in perfect health.

Friday December 28th, 1838 arrived at Holdfast Bay, S.A. Wednesday January 2, 1839, at Port Adelaide, S.A.

Hahn then helped them to make arrangements for settling on land which they named Hahndorf as a tribute to him. The people were in tears when he left South Australia on February 12, 1839.

NOTES

1. Karoline Bartel married my 2nd great-granduncle Gottlieb Johann Nitschke.

2. The son of Johann Ernst Boehm, George Chistian Boehm married my 1st cousin 3 times removed, Elisabeth Lydia Nitschke.

3. The grandson of Johann Goffried Dohnt, Joahnn Friedrich August Dohnt (1848 to 1872) married my Grant Aunt, Anne Elizabeth Buckley on the 1st Oct. 1872.

4. Both Robert Buckley and Anna Eliabeth Rosina Schmidt listed their fathers as "Dead". This has made further research into these families nearly impossible. On Anna's death certificate, her son Charles gave information that proved more helpful. We can assertain from this certificate that she was born in Germany and she came out on the Zebra in 1838.

Ref: "Kavel's People from Prussia to South Australia" by David Schubert.
Mortlock Library, S.A. Various Family History books.